Vascular Surgery

Vascular surgery is a type of surgery that focuses on the vascular system and its associated structures. The vascular system supplies blood to the tissues and organs of the body. Vascular surgery may be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including carotid artery disease, cerebral aneurysms, venous malformations, varicose veins, thrombophlebitis and others.

Why is Vascular Surgery Performed?

There are many reasons why a vascular surgery may be needed. Some of the most common ones include:

  • to correct a defect in the blood vessels
  • to remove the blockages that have formed in the blood vessels
  • for treating aneurysms
  • for removing blocked blood vessels that supply an organ with oxygenated blood (such as the legs)
  • to repair veins and arteries that have been damaged by cancer or other conditions.

Who is vascular surgeon?

A vascular surgeon is a medically trained specialist in the care and treatment of diseases involving the flow of blood through a patient’s body.

Vascular surgeons are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage various conditions affecting your blood vessels which include coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, abdominal aortic aneurysms, carotid (neck) artery disease, iliac (leg) artery disease, dural arteriovenous fistulas and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

There are four general types of vascular surgery:

  • endovascular (or minimally invasive),
  • open or conventional surgery,
  • complex reconstructive surgery for congenital defects or
  • traumatic injuries to large vessels in the body

Vascular Testing

Vascular tests are an important part of diagnosing vascular diseases.
  • Venography is a test to diagnose deep vein thrombosis and other arterial disorders.
  • Venoplasty is a procedure that restores the blood flow by dilating clogged veins.
  • Stenting, used when the veins are too narrow to be dilated with sclerotherapy, is done with a metal mesh tube inserted into the narrowed area of the artery or vein.
  • Thrombolysis is given when there is blockage in an artery near where it meets a vein to dissolve and reopen clogged arteries.
  • Sclerotherapy involves injecting chemicals that cause inflammation and scarring in abnormal blood vessels.

Types of Vascular Surgery


Angioplasty is a procedure in which a catheter is inserted into a blocked or narrowed artery and the vessel is dilated.

The procedure can also include inserting a small tube called a stent to keep the artery open.

Angioplasty and stenting are sometimes used together to treat blocked arteries in the heart (coronary). A surgeon may use angioplasty and stenting to treat peripheral vascular disease, or other conditions of the limbs.


Atherectomy is a surgical procedure that removes atherosclerotic plaque from the inner surface of a patient's artery.

The procedure is performed under general anesthesia with regional or local anesthesia. The incision is usually made in the groin, near the femoral artery but other places may be used depending on the location of the blockage to be removed.

AV Fistula

AV Fistula is a surgical vascular graft that connects an artery and a vein, allowing blood to bypass the blocked artery. An AV fistula is a connection between an artery and a vein. It was first used to provide blood flow to the arm in patients that had lost the ability to use their own arteries due to blocked or damaged vessels.

Arteriovenous (AV) graft

The arteriovenous (AV) graft is a vascular bypass graft that is used to treat high blood pressure in the lungs. Also known as an intra-pulmonary shunt, it redirects arterial blood flow around the lungs so that it does not have to pass through them as often.


A thrombectomy is a procedure that removes clots or plaque from the vessels of the circulatory system. A common use for a thrombectomy is to remove a clot from the artery supplying blood to the leg.

A vascular surgeon may also use a thrombectomy to prevent clots from traveling and blocking arteries in places like the brain, heart, or kidneys.

They may also be used when there are other medical conditions that can cause bleeding because of blood clots.

Vascular Bypass Surgery

Vascular Bypass Surgery is a surgical procedure in which blood flow is restored to an organ by creating a detour around the blocked artery. The surgery is used in the heart, brain, and other parts of the body.

A common problem could be when blood flow to an organ stops or becomes very low because of blockages or narrowing of vessels - for example, as a result of atherosclerosis. This causes reduced oxygen delivery and can lead to tissue damage without treatment.

A vascular bypass graft may then be considered to restore circulation to the blocked extremity.

The condition might also cause a reduction in blood flow through collateral vessels that leads back to the blocked region from another direction, usually from above and below it (as well as anteriorly).